Gendered analysis

Recommended reading on family and whānau violence


Conceptual models:
Gendered analysis



Diemer, K. (2015)
To change attitudes to family violence, we need a shift in gender views
The Conversation

Feminist movement

Arnold, G., & Ake, J. (2013)
Reframing the narrative of the battered women’s movement

Violence Against Women, 19
(5), 557–578.

Htun, M., & Welson, S. L. (2012)
The civic origins of progressive policy change: Combating violence against women in global perspective, 1975-2005
American Political Science Review, 106(3), 548-569.

Hann, S. (2001)
Palmerston North Women's Refuge herstory 1979-2001
Palmerston North Palmerston North Women's Refuge

SafeNetwork: California's Domestic Violence Resource (1999)
Herstory of Domestic Violence: A Timeline of the Battered Women's Movement (webpage)
For a history of family and whānau violence in Aotearoa New Zealand, see the NZFVC Timeline.

Power and control

Hann, S. (2007)
Power and control in family violence
Social Work Now, 37, 17-25.

Interviews with Ellen Pence, Domestic Abuse Intervention Project, Duluth, MN (videos). YouTube.

The Domestic Abuse Intervention Programs (DAIP)
Power and control wheel, Equality wheel and other wheels

Adaptations of the power and control wheel:

Domestic Abuse Intervention Programs (DAIP)
Post-separation power and control wheel

Caring Dads
Child abuse: Not valuing children

National Clearinghouse on Abuse in Later Life (NCALL)
Abuse in later life: Power and control wheel

Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence
People with disabilities and their caregivers: Equality wheel

Hohou te Rongo Kahukura - Outing Violence
LGBTTIQ violence: Power and control wheel for Rainbow relationships

Asian & Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence
Lifetime perspective: Lifetime spiral of gender violence

Fu, M.
Power and Control Wheel of Structural Violence

Pākehā Tiriti workers
Racism & Cultural Violence Wheel (p.5)

Many other adaptations have also been developed.

Coercive control

Stark, E. (2012)
Re-presenting battered women: Coercive control and the defense of liberty
Prepared for Violence Against Women: Complex Realities and New Issues in a Changing World, Les Presses de l’Université du Québec.

Stark, E. (2007)
Coercive control: The entrapment of women in personal life
Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Interviews with Evan Stark (videos). YouTube.


Sokoloff, N. J., & Pratt, C. (2005)
Domestic violence at the margins: Readings on race, class, gender, and culture
New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press

AWID (2004)
Intersectionality: A tool for gender and economic justice
Toronto, Ont: Association for Women’s Rights in Development.
Plain language resource on intersectionality. Not on violence specifically.

Crenshaw, K. (1991)
Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of Color
Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241-1299.

Cho, S., Crenshaw, K. W., & McCall, L. (2013)
Toward a field of intersectionality studies: Theory, applications, and praxis
Signs: Journal of Women in Culture, 38(4), 785-810.

Fu, M. (2015)
What will it take to end gender-based violence?
Women’s Studies Journal, 29(2), 50-59.
Winner of the 2015 Women’s Studies Journal Graduate Prize for a Feminist Essay.

INCITE! (2014)
Color of Violence: The INCITE! Anthology
An anthology of critical writings investigating the intersecting ways in which violence and oppression exist in the lives of women of colour and their communities. It also maps innovative strategies of movement building and resistance used by women and trans people of colour around the world.

Political economy

True, J. (2012)
The political economy of violence against women: A feminist international relations perspective
New York: Oxford University Press.

Masculinities, gender roles

Aotearoa New Zealand

Matt Brown, My Father's Barber (2019).
The barbershop where men go to heal, TEDxChristchurch talk (video). YouTube.

White Ribbon NZ (2017)
Raise our men (video). YouTube.

Towns, A. & Scott, H. (2008)
The culture of cool: Getting in early to prevent domestic violence
Unpublished paper.

Towns, A. (2008)
The cultures of cool and being a man: Getting in early to prevent domestic violence
Unpublished paper.

Busch, Rl, Morgan, M., & Coombes, L. (2014)
Manufacturing egalitarian injustice: A discursive analysis of the rhetorical strategies used in fathers’ rights websites in Aotearoa/New Zealand
Feminism & Psychology, 24(4), 440-460.


UN Women (2016)
Self-Learning Booklet on Masculinities and Violence Against Women and Girls
Developed as the result of a series of training courses that aim to strengthen capacities of practitioners and advocates to understand, integrate and address critical gender issues in their lives and work.

Connell, R. W., & Messerschmidt, J. W. (2005)
Hegemonic masculinity: Rethinking the concept
Gender & Society, 19, 829-859.

Gender and data

Kotsadam, A. (2015)
Cross-national and multilevel correlates of partner violence: An analysis of data from population-based surveys
The Lancet Global Health, 3.

Braaf, R., & Meyering, I. B. (2013)
The gender debate in domestic violence: The role of data
Sydney, NSW: Australian Domestic & Family Violence Clearinghouse, University of New South Wales.

New Zealand Family Violence Clearinghouse (2007)
Family violence and gender fact sheet

Holtzworth-Munroe, A (2005)
Male versus Female Intimate Partner Violence: Putting Controversial Findings into Context
Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(5), 1120-1125.

Kimmel, M. S. (2002)
"Gender symmetry" in domestic violence: A substantive and methodological research review
Violence Against Women, 8, 1332-1363.

Women's use of violence

Intimate partner violence

Mackenzie, D. (2009)
Arrested female offenders in Auckland City: April – September 2008
Auckland; Shine.

Fanslow, J. L., Gulliver, P., Dixon, R., & Ayallo, I. (2015)
Women's initiation of physical violence against an abusive partner outside of a violent episode
Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(15), 2659-268.

Fanslow, J.L., Gulliver, P., Dixon, R., & Ayallo, I. (2015)
Hitting back: Women's use of physical violence against violent male partners, in the context of a violent episode

Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(17), 2963-2979.

Hester, M. (2009)
Who does what to whom? Gender and domestic violence perpetrators
Bristol: University of Bristol in association with the Northern Rock Foundation.

Lehrner, A., & Allen, N. E. (2014)
Construct validity of the Conflict Tactics Scales: A mixed-method investigation of women’s intimate partner violence
Psychology of Violence, 4(4), 477-490.

Swan, S. C. & Snow, D. L. (2006)
The development of a theory for women’s use of violence in intimate relationships
Violence Against Women, 12, 1026-45.

Child maltreatment

Elizabeth, V. (2004)
Viewing mothering, violence and sexuality through the lens of ethnicity: Mainstream media constructions of Tania Witika as a transgressive mother
In Potts, A., Gavey, N., & Weatherall, A. (Eds.). Sex and the body. Palmerston North: Dunmore Press.

Fitzroy, L. (2001)
Violent women: Questions for feminist theory, practice and policy
Critical Social Policy, 21(1), 7-34.

Featherstone, B. (1997)
What has gender got to do with it? Exploring physically abusive behaviour towards children
British Journal of Social Work, 27, 419-433.

Featherstone, B., & Trinder, L. (1997)
Familiar subjects? Domestic violence and child welfare
Child and Family Social Work, 2, 147-159.


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